A Review of Causes and Treatments of Atopic Skin

If you or a member of your family has atopic skin, you should be aware of the causes and treatment options. There are many different factors that can cause atopic skin, and your dermatologist will help you determine the best treatment option. Keeping your skin well moisturised will prevent dryness and inflammation and decrease the number of outbreaks. You should also avoid certain materials like wool and some synthetic fibres.

Filaggrin expression

Recent studies have shown that filaggrin expression is related to atopic skin. This protein is a precursor of emollient proteins in the stratum corneum. However, its role in atopic dermatitis is unclear. This review summarizes recent findings about filaggrin.

Filaggrin is a protein that plays a vital role in skin barrier formation. It binds to keratins and induces cytoskeleton collapse, resulting in the formation of corneocytes. These cells are heavily crosslinked by transglutaminases and comprise the CCE.

The FLG gene is located on chromosome 1q21 and spans 25 kb of DNA. It contains three exons and two introns. Exon 3 encodes most of the protein. The resulting protein is a polyprotein with 10 to twelve near-identical full-length filaggrin repeats. It also contains two EF-hands and two Ca 2+-binding motifs.

Environmental allergens

The causes of environmental allergens and atopic skin are poorly understood. The immune system and environmental factors interact to form a complex immune response, which can lead to allergic disease. These factors include polluted air, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds. The body’s response to allergens is shaped by the timing and amount of exposure to these allergens.

The risk of developing allergies is inherited from one or both parents. During childhood, people at risk for allergies develop allergy symptoms to allergenic substances. This process usually takes years, but it can happen within a few months. Pollens and molds are among the allergens that cause allergies.

Itching reflex

The itch reflex in atopic skin is triggered by a variety of triggers. These can include allergens, irritants, and chemical substances. Common triggers include animal dander, household dust mites, and tree and grass pollens. However, not all irritants or chemicals are involved in the itch reflex.

Itching reflexes are similar to other reflexes in the body, like coughing and scratching. Both act to expel potentially harmful substances from the body. But the mechanism behind these reflexes remains poorly understood. It has been suggested that IL-4, IL-13, and Janus kinas are involved in driving the chronic itch reflex.

The itch sensation is perceived as an unpleasant sensation, and it evokes a strong urge to scratch the affected area. However, the act of scratching produces a mild pain that inhibits the itch sensation. The itch neural pathway is influenced by regulation of excitability in the peripheral and central nervous systems.

Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy for atopic skin can help patients cope with the symptoms of atopic dermatitis. This treatment can help people overcome the feelings of anxiety and depression that are associated with atopic dermatitis. Patients with atopic dermatitis can also learn to manage their underlying stress through psychotherapy. There are many benefits of psychotherapy for atopic skin, including its ability to improve quality of life and self-image.

While atopic dermatitis can be managed effectively with topical medications, a significant proportion of patients need systemic therapy. However, there are few guidelines for determining when patients need to be treated with systemic medication. To address this, a subgroup of the International Eczema Council reviewed the available literature to identify aspects that clinicians should consider before prescribing systemic therapy. In addition, expert reviewers performed topic-specific literature reviews, consulted existing guidelines when available, and provided expert opinion.

Genetics

Recent genetic studies have identified candidate genes for atopic dermatitis. These genes are located on different chromosomes and show different genetic variations in different populations. Researchers can now determine whether a person’s genes are directly related to the likelihood of developing the disease. These findings are important for better understanding the causes of atopic skin.

The FLG gene is one of the genes that is suspected to play a role in atopic skin disease. It encodes a precursor of the protein filaggrin, which is essential for the skin’s barrier. It has been shown that certain mutations in the FLG gene increase the permeability of the skin. Other genes are also implicated in the development of atopic skin disease.