Atopic Dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, relapsing form of skin disease characterized by excessive itching. The diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms and the presence of a personal or family history of atopy. The skin lesions vary in appearance and are usually red, itchy patches. The chronic form is thicker and lichenified, and the classical distribution is on the extensor surfaces of the extremities.

Filaggrin expression causes atopic dermatitis

Filaggrin is a multifunctional histidine-rich protein that plays a crucial role in skin barrier function. Loss-of-function mutations of the filaggrin gene have been associated with various skin disorders, including atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis.

Filaggrin is required for the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes and cleaves into a 37-kDa monomer. This protein facilitates cellular compression by condensing the keratin cytoskeleton. When degraded, filaggrin converts to a natural moisturising factor (NMF) and exerts multiple functions. Filaggrin is essential for the biogenesis and physiology of the stratum corneum.

Filaggrin expression has been associated with lipid organization in the stratum corneum and testicular function in young Danish men. The loss of filaggrin expression in mice resulted in significantly impaired skin barrier function and altered stratum corneum lipid composition. It also increased the level of filaggrin intermediates in the epidermis.

Filaggrin is a highly complex protein. It is expressed in the cells of the epidermis and is involved in the structure of the skin. It contains 10 or 12 copies of filaggrin protein in each molecule, and further processing of this protein produces other molecules that contribute to skin hydration.

Staphylococcus aureus causes atopic dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis is a chronic recurrent skin disorder caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Most people carry the bacterium on their skin, and it is known to be a common cause of infections. These infections often lead to systemic disease, if left untreated. People with atopic dermatitis (AD) are predisposed to secondary staphylococcal infections because they have several factors that favor their colonization of the bacteria.

Staphylococcal infections are typically treated with a topical antibiotic. Usually, mupirocin or fusidic acid are used on the affected areas. Depending on the severity of the infection, general antibiotics may also be used. In some cases, however, a therapeutic strategy without antibiotics has produced positive results.

A study published in Am. J. Clin. Dermatol in 2005 demonstrated that Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for causing atopic dermatitis. Researchers found that the bacterium induces the production of a substance called granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. This in turn stimulates the production of keratinocytes.

Food and drink can cause atopic dermatitis flare-up

The foods and drinks you eat and drink can be triggers for an atopic dermatitis flare up. It’s important to remember that food and drink triggers aren’t always the culprit, and you should consult a doctor before making any changes. Atopic dermatitis is a skin condition characterized by occasional flare-ups of dry, cracked, and itchy skin. It is common in children and infants, but it can also occur in adults. While the condition is rarely life-threatening, flare-ups can be disruptive, affecting sleep and quality of life.

Foods and drinks can trigger an atopic dermatitis flare up, but they shouldn’t be completely banned. According to pediatric allergist Jessica Hui of National Jewish Health in Denver, food and drink can be a trigger, but you shouldn’t avoid them altogether if you want to avoid an atopic dermatitis flare-up.

The best way to avoid triggers is to avoid foods containing nuts, wheat, and dairy products. Avoiding these foods will reduce inflammation in the body, which may help with your atopic dermatitis flare-downs. Aside from this, you can also opt for over-the-counter creams and medications to treat your eczema.

Treatment options

Atopic skin treatment options vary from patient to patient. The most common approach involves topical steroids and emollients. Both are effective in relieving the symptoms of the disease. For more severe atopic dermatitis, injectable biologics, such as dupilumab (brand names Dupixent and Adbry), are often used.

Biologics, such as dupilumab, block the action of certain ILs on the skin, limiting the immune system’s response. This lowers the immune response, reducing inflammation and reducing the severity of symptoms. Dupilumab is approved for use in both adults and children ages six and older with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis.

Phototherapy, which involves applying UVB light to the affected areas, can be helpful in relieving the itching and inflammation. It also promotes the production of vitamin D by the body. While it may not provide lasting relief, it may be an option worth exploring.