How to Treat Atopic Dermatitis

If you have atopic dermatitis, you must be very careful about your daily maintenance routine. You should use tepid water and a mild soap such as Syndet to wash your face, and you should use an emollient made especially for atopic prone skin like Lipikar Baume AP+. You should also ask your dermatologist about the proper way to apply creams.

Epidermal barrier function

The permeability barrier protects the skin from extensive loss of water and prevents entry of harmful substances. It is primarily composed of the stratum corneum, a lipid-rich intercellular domain that forms during epidermal differentiation. Disruption of this barrier can lead to atopic dermatitis. Its formation is affected by a number of factors, including changes in the lipid composition of the skin, filaggrin mutations, and epidermal differentiation.

The stratum corneum lipid matrix is made up of cholesterol, free fatty acids, and ceramides. These substances are essential for maintaining epidermal barrier function. However, in atopic dermatitis, these lipids are reduced or deficient. The disruption of these lipids leads to an impaired barrier function and increased permeability of the stratum corneum.

Staphylococci aggravate atopic dermatitis

Inflammation of the skin is a common symptom of atopic dermatitis, and an infection by Staphylococcus aureus can worsen the condition. The bacterium produces toxins that trigger an overreactive immune system, resulting in eczema flare-ups. Other members of the Staphylococci family, such as Streptococci, can also cause dermatitis.

Recent studies have found that the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus frequently colonizes the skin of atopic dermatitis (AD) patients and contributes to its development and exacerbation. This is due to multiple factors, including the development of microbial dysbiosis, allergen sensitization, and Th2/Th17 polarization.

This bacteria causes the skin to become inflamed and red. Infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus is common and can be treated with antibiotics. Treatments with antibiotics will help control the infection and control eczema.

Niacinamide soothes atopic dermatitis

Niacinamide helps improve the skin’s health and helps treat atopic dermatitis. It reduces inflammation and hyperpigmentation, and improves skin texture and brightness. In addition, it improves skin’s barrier, so it’s helpful for dry and itchy skin.

It is a water-soluble vitamin that is easily absorbed by the body. Niacinamide works by allowing the body to produce more NAD+, a molecule that helps fuel cells and neutralize free radicals. Free radicals can damage healthy cells, so niacinamide helps your skin heal.

Niacinamide is available in various topical forms. It can be applied in the morning or at night. It’s an effective anti-inflammatory and can help increase collagen production. It can also reduce the risk of irritation when used in combination with other active ingredients. It can be incorporated into a moisturizer, sunscreen, or overnight cream.

Treatment options

The first line of treatment for atopic dermatitis is topical corticosteroids, usually in low-potency formulations. These are more effective in preventing local side effects while maximizing systemic absorption. They are best used in infants and children, due to their larger body mass-to-skin ratio and greater potential for systemic absorption.

If the condition is severe, doctors may prescribe antihistamines. These can help alleviate the itching, but they can also make a person drowsy. Alternatively, patients can choose a non-sedating medication. Both types of medication can help alleviate the symptoms of atopic dermatitis, but sedating medication can be dangerous, as it can impair alertness and sleep.

Several biologics are also available, which target specific immune factors. One such drug, Dupixent, has been approved by the FDA for children and adults with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis. Another treatment option is Adbry, an IL-13 antagonist developed by Leo Pharma. Although both biologics are still in the early stages of development, they are expected to be available in the market by the end of 2021.