Skin Disease

Skin disease can be classified into two main categories: acute and chronic. The former is characterized by weepy, vesicular lesions and can be extremely painful. The latter is characterized by dry, erythematous, cracked, lichenified skin that has a definite pattern and often is unilateral or asymmetrical.

P. acnes

Severe acne may have played an important role in the natural defense against malaria and plague. However, little attention has been given to the acquired immune response of humans to P. acnes. The bacterial infection is responsible for a variety of skin disorders including psoriasis, acne vulgaris, keloids, and blackheads.

Propionibacterium acnes is a gram-positive, anaerobic rod that lives on the surface of the skin. It is the most abundant bacterium on the skin and is found primarily in sebaceous areas. It is a recognized contaminant in clinical samples and surgical wounds, but its pathogenic potential remains largely unexplored. In this study, researchers used next-generation sequencing to determine the prevalence of P. acnes in 180 samples from 20 types of patients. The process of next-genetic enrichment, which involves reducing the host’s nucleic acid content, revealed that P. acnes is a major component of the acne-causing bacterium’s genome.

Erythema nodosum

Erythema nodosum causes painful lumps that are red and swollen. Most commonly, it affects the shins, but it can occur on other parts of the body as well. It is caused by an infection, and in most cases, it heals on its own. However, in some people, it can be related to another illness, and treatment should be sought as soon as possible.

A blood test can be done to rule out underlying infections, including tuberculosis or strep throat. Your healthcare provider may also perform a biopsy, which is a sample of tissue taken from the layer of fat underneath the skin. The sample is then examined under a microscope to look for changes that could be related to erythema nodosum.

Cellulitis

Cellulitis is a common skin infection caused by bacteria. It typically affects the lower legs and feet but can occur on other parts of the body as well. It can spread to the bloodstream or lymph nodes if left untreated. While cellulitis is not contagious, it is very dangerous if not treated immediately. The bacteria responsible for cellulitis usually enter the skin through a break in the skin or other type of injury. Typically, antibiotics are prescribed to treat the infection.

Most people with cellulitis do not experience any severe symptoms. However, in rare cases, patients may develop a fever, low blood pressure, or confusion. Depending on the severity of the cellulitis, the lymph nodes and vessels in the area may also become enlarged. A doctor can usually diagnose cellulitis by looking at the area and observing the symptoms. If the cellulitis is severe, a laboratory culture may be necessary to identify the bacteria that causes it.

Exfoliative dermatitis

Exfoliative dermatitis is an inflammatory condition characterized by generalized skin redness and scaling. It can affect up to 90% of a patient’s body surface. It is typically idiopathic, but in rare cases, underlying disease may be the cause. It may also be the side effect of certain prescription medications. Treatment depends on the type of disease and the severity.

People with exfoliative dermatitis tend to be older, but it can affect younger people as well. The sex of the patient may also be a risk factor, with males two to three times as likely to develop it as females. Some drugs may precipitate the onset of exfoliative dermatitis, including antibiotics and sulfonamides.

Tinea versicolor

Tinea versicolor is a bacterial skin infection that affects people with a weak immune system. It is also more common in people who are pregnant. Hormonal changes can also increase the risk of developing the disease. It affects people of all skin colors and can cause emotional distress and self-consciousness. It typically appears as small, dry patches on the skin. They may be red, brown, black, or any other color. There are treatments available to treat the symptoms.

People living in warm, humid climates are more likely to develop this skin infection. Young adults may also be at risk. Their hormones are changing and their skin may be producing more oil. Fortunately, it is not contagious, so there is no need to worry about transmitting the infection to other people. However, because of its tendency to recur, it is best to visit a dermatologist as soon as possible.

Squamous cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common type of skin cancer and typically develops on exposed skin. Unlike melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma is much less aggressive, but it can still be very disfiguring and potentially fatal if left untreated. Typically, squamous cell carcinomas occur in older people, and are usually diagnosed when they are in the early stages of development. Fortunately, early detection is essential because treatment options are available to help control the progression of the cancer.

While squamous cell carcinoma can occur on healthy skin, people with genetic conditions that make them more prone to it have an increased risk. It is also possible to develop squamous cell carcinoma in people who are immune-suppressed, which can increase their risk of developing the disease. Those with certain autoimmune conditions also have a higher risk.